Stephen Girardin PhD
Associate Professor
Stephen Girardin
Contact Info
T: (416) 978-7507
F: (416) 978-5959
Medical Sciences Building Room 6336, 1, King’s College Circle
Toronto, ON, M5S1A8
Grad Students Must First Apply Through Department
Clinical Interests
Nod-like receptors, Gut Immunology
Research Interests
Innate Immunity, Infectious Diseases, Cancer Immunology, Microbiota

The Girardin lab studies the host innate immune responses to pathogenic microbes, using cellular and in vivo models of infection. A major focus of the lab is the intestinal epithelium, which serves as a fundamental interface between, on the one hand, enteric pathogens and the microbiota and, on the other hand, our immune defenses. Together, the ultimate goal of the team is to understand what drives intestinal inflammation, which can cause chronic diseases, such as Crohn’s disease and colorectal cancer.

Lab website:

Publications and Awards

View PubMed search of this faculty member's recent publications.

Recent Publications

M Abdel-Nour, LAM Carneiro, J Downey, J Tsalikis, A Outlioua, D Prescott, L Silva Da Costa, ES Hovingh, A Farahvash, RG Gaudet, R Molinaro, R van Dalen, CCY Lau, FC Azimi, NK Escalante, A Trotman-Grant, JE Lee, SD Gray-Owen, M Divangahi, J-J Chen, DJ Philpott, D Arnoult and SE Girardin (2019) The Heme-Regulated Inhibitor is a cytosolic sensor of protein misfolding that controls innate immune signaling Science 365(6448)

SJ Robertson, P Lemire, H Maughan, A Goethel, W Turpin, L Bedrani, K Croitoru, SE Girardin* and DJ Philpott* (2019) Comparison of co-housing and littermate methods for microbiota standardization in mouse models Cell Reports 27(6):1910-1919 (* contributed equally)

R Molinaro, T Mukherjee, R Flick, DJ Philpott and SE Girardin (2019) Trace levels of peptidoglycan in serum underlie the NOD-dependent cytokine response to endoplasmic reticulum stress J Biol Chem 294(22):9007-9015

MT Sorbara, EG Foerster, J Tsalikis, M Abdel-Nour, J Mangiapane, I Sirluck-Schroeder, I Tattoli, R van Dalen, DE Isenman, JR Rohde, SE Girardin* and DJ Philpott* (2018) Complement C3 drives autophagy-dependent restriction of cyto-invasive bacteria Cell Host Microbe 23(5):644-52 (*co-senior authors)

P Lemire, SJ Robertson, H Maughan, I Tattoli, CJ Streutker, JM Platnich, DA Muruve, DJ Philpott and SE Girardin (2017) The NLR protein NLRP6 does not impact gut microbiota composition Cell Reports 21(13):3653-3661

I Tattoli, SA Killackey, EG Foerster, R Molinaro, C Maisonneuve, MA Rahman, S Winer, DA Winer, CJ Streutker, DJ Philpott and SE Girardin (2016) NLRX1 acts as an epithelial-intrinsic tumour suppressor through the modulation of TNF-mediated proliferation Cell Reports 14(11):2576-86

J Tsalikis, I Tattoli, A Ling, MT Sorbara, DO Croitoru, DJ Philpott and SE Girardin (2015) Intracellular bacterial pathogens trigger the formation of U bodies through metabolic stress induction J Biol Chem 290(34):20904-18

MT Sorbara, LK Ellison, M Ramjeet, LH Travassos, NL Jones, SE Girardin* and DJ Philpott* (2013) The protein ATG16L1 suppresses inflammatory cytokines induced by the intracellular sensors Nod1 and Nod2 in an autophagy-independent manner Immunity 39(5):858-73 (*co-senior authors) I Tattoli, MT Sorbara, C Yang, SA Tooze, DJ Philpott and SE Girardin (2013) Listeria phospholipases subvert host autophagic defenses by stalling pre-autophagosomal structures EMBO J 32(23):3066-78

I Tattoli, M Sorbara, D Vuckovic, A Ling, F Soares, LAM Carneiro, C Yang, A Emili, DJ Philpott and SE Girardin (2012) Amino acid starvation induced by invasive bacterial pathogens triggers an innate host defense program Cell Host Microbe 11(6):563-75

JG Magalhaes, SJ Rubino, LH Travassos, L LeBourhis, W Duan, G Sellge, K Geddes, C Reardon, M Lechmann, LA Carneiro, T Selvanantham, JH Fritz, BC Taylor, D Artis, TW Mak, M Croft, SE Girardin and DJ Philpott (2011) Nod1 and Nod2 activation in the stromal compartment instruct dendritic cells to initiate Th2 immunity Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(36):14896-901

K Geddes, SJ Rubino, JG Magalhaes, C Streutker, L Le Bourhis, JH Cho, S Robertson, CJ Kim, R Kaul, DJ Philpott and SE Girardin (2011) Identification of an innate Th17 response to intestinal bacterial pathogens Nature Medicine 17(7):837-44.

LH Travassos, LAM Carneiro, M Ramjeet, S Hussey, Y-G Kim, L Yuan, F Soares, JG Magalhães, L Le Bourhis, IG Boneca, A Allaoui, NL Jones, G Nuñez, SE Girardin, and DJ Philpott (2010) Nod1 and Nod2 direct autophagy by recruiting ATG16L1 to the site of bacterial entry Nature Immunology 11(1):55-62

LAM Carneiro, LH Travassos, F Soares, I Tattoli, JG Magalhaes, MT Bozza, MC Plotkowski, PJ Sansonetti, JD Molkentin, DJ Philpott and SE Girardin (2009) Shigella induces mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death in nonmyeloid cells Cell Host Microbe 19;5(2):123-36

S Benko, JG Magalhaes, DJ Philpott and SE Girardin (2010) NLRC5 limits the activation of inflammatory pathways J. Immunol. 185(3):1681-91

D Arnoult, F Soares, I Tattoli, C Castanier, DJ Philpott and SE Girardin (2009) An N-terminal addressing sequence targets NLRX1 to the mitochondrial matrix J Cell Sci 122(Pt 17):3161-8

J Lee, I Tattoli, KA Wojtal, SR Vavricka, DJ Philpott and SE Girardin (2009) pH-dependent internalization of muramyl peptides from early endosomes enables Nod1 and Nod2 signaling J Biol Chem 284(35):23818-29

JG Magalhaes, JH Fritz, L Le Bourhis, G Sellge, LH Travassos, T Selvanantham, SE Girardin, JL Gommerman and DJ Philpott (2008) Nod2-dependent Th2 polarization of antigen-specific immunity J Immunol 181(11):7925-35

JH Fritz, L Le Bourhis, H Fsihi, G Sellge, JG Magalhaes, H Fsihi, TA Küfer, C Collins, J Viala, RL Ferrero, SE Girardin and DJ Philpott (2007) Nod1-mediated innate immune recognition of peptidoglycan contributes to the onset of adaptive immunity Immunity 26(4): 445-59

I Tattoli, LA Carneiro, M Jéhanno, JG Magalhaes, Y Shu, DJ Philpott, D Arnoult and SE Girardin (2008) NLRX1 is a mitochondrial NOD-like receptor that amplifies NF-kB and JNK pathways by inducing reactive oxygen species production EMBO Rep 9(3): 293-300

IG Boneca, O Dussurget, D Cabanes, MA Nahori, S Sousa, M Lecuit, E Psylinakis, V Bouriotis, JP Hugot, A Coyle, J Bertin, A Namane, JC Rousselle, N Cayet, MC Prevost, V Balloy, M Chignard, DJ Philpott, P Cossart and SE Girardin (2007) A critical role for peptidoglycan N-deacetylation in Listeria evasion from host innate immune response Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(3):997-1002.

SE Girardin, Travassos L.H., Hervé M., Blanot D., Boneca I.G., DJ Philpott, Sansonetti P.J., Mengin-Lecreulx D. (2003). Peptidoglycan molecular requirements allowing detection by Nod1 and Nod2. J Biol Chem 278: 41702-8.

SE Girardin, Boneca IG, Carneiro LAM, Antignac A, Jéhanno M, Viala J, Tedin K, Taha MH, Labigne A, Zähringer U, Coyle AJ, DiStefano PJ, Bertin J, Sansonetti PJ, and DJ Philpott. 2003. Nod1 detects a unique muropeptide from Gram-negative bacterial peptidoglycan. Science 300:1584-1587.

SE Girardin, Boneca IG, Viala J, Chamaillard M, Labigne A, Thomas G, DJ Philpott, Sansonetti PJ. 2003. Nod2 is a general sensor of peptidoglycan through muramyl dipeptide (MDP) detection. J Biol Chem 278:8869-8872.